A multipurpose lesson (or two or three) that acquaints students with the basic principles of historical methodology.  Jack the Ripper was not the first serial killer, but his case was the first to create a worldwide media frenzy. worksheets, lesson plans, activities, etc.  In his opinion, the killer must have been a man of solitary habits, subject to "periodical attacks of homicidal and erotic mania", with the character of the mutilations possibly indicating "satyriasis".  Most experts point to deep slash wounds to the throat, followed by extensive abdominal and genital-area mutilation, the removal of internal organs, and progressive facial mutilations as the distinctive features of the Ripper's modus operandi. The "From Hell" letter received by George Lusk of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee came with half of a preserved human kidney, purportedly taken from one of the victims. Limited Series.  The murders of Stride and Eddowes ultimately became known as the "double event".  Suspects named in contemporary police documents include three in Sir Melville Macnaghten's 1894 memorandum, but the evidence against these individuals is, at best, circumstantial.. Who was Jack the Ripper ? , After the publication of the "Dear Boss" letter, "Jack the Ripper" supplanted "Leather Apron" as the name adopted by the press and public to describe the killer.  Police officials later claimed to have identified a specific journalist as the author of both the "Dear Boss" letter and the postcard. Itñññs Easy with Kiz Phonics
, Hundreds of letters claimed to have been written by the killer himself, and three of these in particular are prominent: the "Dear Boss" letter, the "Saucy Jacky" postcard and the "From Hell" letter. 231–234; Rumbelow, p. 157.  Her body was found with a large tear through her groin area and superficial cuts on her legs and back.  DNA analysis on extant letters is inconclusive; the available material has been handled many times and is too contaminated to provide meaningful results. The five "soiled doves" were stabbed to death in Whitechapel between August 31st and November 9th, 1888, always late at night. 78–79; Marriott, Trevor, p. 221.  Dr Percy Clark, assistant to the examining pathologist George Bagster Phillips, linked only three of the murders and thought that the others were perpetrated by "weak-minded individual[s] ... induced to emulate the crime". Part 3. , The "From Hell" letter was received by George Lusk, leader of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee, on 16 October 1888. , Scotland Yard published facsimiles of the "Dear Boss" letter and the postcard on 3 October, in the ultimately vain hope that a member of the public would recognise the handwriting. The sequence of events gets fogged up by going off of stated times.  Bond also stated that "the homicidal impulse may have developed from a revengeful or brooding condition of the mind, or that religious mania may have been the original disease but I do not think either hypothesis is likely". As such, by 1888, more working-class people in England and Wales were literate. , The savagery of this murder, the lack of an obvious motive, and the closeness of the location and date to the later canonical Ripper murders led police to link this murder to those later committed by Jack the Ripper. He was so nicknamed after an anonymous letter claiming the murders, which was sent to the press which widely publicized it.  The surviving Metropolitan Police files allow a detailed view of investigative procedures in the Victorian era. 24–27, Marriott, Trevor, pp. Whittington-Egan, Richard; Whittington-Egan, Molly (1992).  However, it was postmarked more than 24 hours after the killings occurred, long after details of the murders were known and publicised by journalists, and had become general community gossip by the residents of Whitechapel.  "Fairy Fay" was a nickname given to an unidentified woman whose body was allegedly found in a doorway close to Commercial Road on 26 December 1887 "after a stake had been thrust through her abdomen", but there were no recorded murders in Whitechapel at or around Christmas 1887. Sadler was arrested by the police and charged with her murder.  These mushroomed in the later Victorian era to include mass-circulation newspapers costing as little as a halfpenny, along with popular magazines such as The Illustrated Police News which made the Ripper the beneficiary of previously unparalleled publicity. We offer carefully designed phonics worksheets, games, videos and flash cards you will find on our site.  Gill had been missing since 27 December. , Jack the Ripper features in hundreds of works of fiction and works which straddle the boundaries between fact and fiction, including the Ripper letters and a hoax diary: The Diary of Jack the Ripper.  Most of the letters that followed copied this letter's tone. The powerpoint asks and answers key questions on the Ripper case while the handout engages the students in a series of tasks that challenges them and embeds historical skills. The Ripper. Macnaghten's notes quoted by Evans and Skinner.  Conversely, others suppose that the six murders between Tabram and Kelly were the work of a single killer. The message appeared to imply that a Jew or Jews in general were responsible for the series of murders, but it is unclear whether the graffito was written by the murderer on dropping the section of apron, or was merely incidental and nothing to do with the case. Vocabulary 1 Vocabulary 2 Multi-choice quiz.  The parish of Whitechapel in London's East End became increasingly overcrowded, with the population increasing to approximately 80,000 inhabitants by 1888. Once Upon a Time in Yorkshire 51m. , "The Whitehall Mystery" was a term coined for the discovery of a headless torso of a woman on 2 October 1888 in the basement of the new Metropolitan Police headquarters being built in Whitehall. Everything you need to help a child learn to read through phonics: decodable stories, listening exercises, you name it. The heart was missing from the crime scene. Coles was still alive, although she died before medical help could arrive. by Frogwares Studio. The City of London Police were involved under Detective Inspector James McWilliam after the Eddowes murder, which occurred within the City of London.  Her throat was severed by two deep cuts, one of which completely severed all the tissue down to the vertebrae.  The term "ripperology" was coined by Colin Wilson in the 1970s to describe the study of the case by professionals and amateurs.  Most authors agree that the victim "Fairy Fay" never existed. , The "Saucy Jacky" postcard was postmarked 1 October 1888 and was received the same day by the Central News Agency. Although an unknown man with blood on his mouth and hands had run out of this lodging house, shouting, "Look at what she has done!"  However, this murder differs from the later canonical murders because although Tabram had been repeatedly stabbed, she had not suffered any slash wounds to her throat or abdomen. Grâce à cette séquence très détaillée de l’"atelier 19" (groupe animé par Corinne Brugière), utilisez des documents vidéo et faites découvrir Jack the Ripper et Sherlock Holmes à vos élèves. , The Ripper murders mark an important watershed in the treatment of crime by journalists. , In 2015, the Jack the Ripper Museum opened in east London, to minor protests. Some of the victims were mutilated, with internal organs being removed and left beside the body. Walkthrough by MaGtRo May 2009 . 26–29; Rumbelow, p. 42, Cook, p. 157; Marriott, Trevor, pp. She had suffered two stab wounds to her neck, and her left carotid artery had been severed. 252–253, Bloom, Clive, "Jack the Ripper – A Legacy in Pictures", in Werner, pp.  Eddowes's ear appears to have been nicked by the killer incidentally during his attack, and the letter writer's threat to send the ears to the police was never carried out.  Anti-semitism, crime, nativism, racism, social disturbance, and severe deprivation influenced public perceptions that Whitechapel was a notorious den of immorality. It is believed their attention is particularly directed to ... a notorious character known as 'Leather Apron'. " Depictions were often phantasmic or monstrous. First, click on the picture and Play the game. 186–187; Evans and Skinner, Evans and Rumbelow, pp. Part 2.  The invention and adoption of a nickname for a particular killer became standard media practice with examples such as the Axeman of New Orleans, the Boston Strangler, and the Beltway Sniper. Now, click on "Start now" and take the listening quiz .  Such theories draw on cultural perceptions such as fear of the medical profession, mistrust of modern science, or the exploitation of the poor by the rich.  Consequently, at the height of the investigation, over one million copies of newspapers with extensive coverage devoted to the Whitechapel murders were sold each day.  However, many of the articles were sensationalistic and speculative, and false information was regularly printed as fact. The public came increasingly to believe in a single serial killer known as "Jack the Ripper", mainly because of both the extraordinarily brutal nature of the murders, and media coverage of the crimes. 12–14, quoted in Sugden, pp. 76–77; Evans and Rumbelow, p. 137; Evans and Skinner, Cook, pp.  Such graffiti were commonplace in Whitechapel. Whitechapel Jack: The 1888 Autumn of Terror at, This page was last edited on 1 January 2021, at 18:43. « Sherlock vs Jack the Ripper », un jeu d’évasion pour mobiliser les compétences linguistiques. Sensational press reports combined with the fact that no one was ever convicted of the murders have confused scholarly analysis and created a legend that casts a shadow over later serial killers. Use coupon code "ESLPR" on registration for discount! 255–260. Many experts do not connect Tabram's murder with the later murders because of this difference in the wound pattern. Marriott, Trevor, p. 251; Rumbelow, p. 49. Between the months of August and November, 1888, the Whitechapel area of East London witnessed a series of horrific murders, which remain to this day unsolved. Réponse: Correction/Jack the Ripper de dsmith, postée le 02-11-2012 à 02:11:54 (S | E) Hello, I will alert you to some problems: Jack-the-Ripper is the nickname of a famous serial killer who acted in 1888, in the underprivileged London District of Whitechapel. Letter from Thomas Bond to Robert Anderson, Marriott, Trevor, pp. , The vast majority of the City of London Police files relating to their investigation into the Whitechapel murders were destroyed in the Blitz. 219 ff. , Some researchers have posited that some of the murders were undoubtedly the work of a single killer, but an unknown larger number of killers acting independently were responsible for the other crimes. , Each of the canonical five murders was perpetrated at night, on or close to a weekend, either at the end of a month or a week (or so) after. 1. , The investigation was initially conducted by the Metropolitan Police Whitechapel (H) Division Criminal Investigation Department (CID) headed by Detective Inspector Edmund Reid.  Following the murders of Stride and Eddowes, the Commissioner of the City Police, Sir James Fraser, offered a reward of £500 for the arrest of the Ripper.  Fifty-five percent of children born in the East End died before they were five years old.  There is no waxwork figure of Jack the Ripper at Madame Tussauds' Chamber of Horrors, unlike numerous murderers of lesser fame, in accordance with their policy of not modelling persons whose likeness is unknown. Mary Jane Kelly is generally considered to be the Ripper's final victim, and it is assumed that the crimes ended because of the culprit's death, imprisonment, institutionalisation, or emigration.  The kidney was examined by Dr Thomas Openshaw of the London Hospital, who determined that it was human and from the left side, but (contrary to false newspaper reports) he could not determine any other biological characteristics. As in the case of Mary Ann Nichols, the throat was severed by two deep cuts. Fido, pp. 47–52; Sugden, p. 254, Letter from Charles Warren to Godfrey Lushington, Permanent, Dr. Thomas Bond "notes of examination of body of woman found murdered & mutilated in Dorset Street" MEPO 3/3153 ff.  He is instead depicted as a shadow. In both the criminal case files and contemporary journalistic accounts, the killer was called the Whitechapel Murderer and Leather Apron.. , Eddowes's body was found in Mitre Square in the City of London, three-quarters of an hour after the discovery of the body of Elizabeth Stride. Jack the Ripper as Victorian Entertainment by Jamie Kinsler Throughout the fall of 1888 Jack the Ripper terrorized the East End of London, England. From 1882, Jewish refugees fleeing pogroms in Tsarist Russia and other areas of Eastern Europe emigrated into the same area.  The periodicals Ripperana, Ripperologist, and Ripper Notes publish their research. , Tax reforms in the 1850s had enabled the publication of inexpensive newspapers with a wider circulation. 96–97; Evans and Skinner.
Jack the Ripper: A Suspect Guide This text is from the E-book Jack the Ripper: A Suspect Guide by Christopher J. Morley (2005).  This prompted Metropolitan Police Commissioner Sir Charles Warren to appoint Chief Inspector Donald Swanson to coordinate the enquiry from Scotland Yard. Holmes, Ronald M.; Holmes, Stephen T. (2002). , Bond was strongly opposed to the idea that the murderer possessed any kind of scientific or anatomical knowledge, or even "the technical knowledge of a butcher or horse slaughterer". The strangled body of 26-year-old Rose Mylett was found in Clarke's Yard, High Street, Poplar on 20 December 1888. ", "Old Wounds: Re-examining the Buck's Row Murder", "Another Horrible Tragedy in Whitechapel", "Alice McKenzie a.k.a. , Carrie Brown (nicknamed "Shakespeare", reportedly for her habit of quoting Shakespeare's sonnets) was strangled with clothing and then mutilated with a knife on 24 April 1891 in New York City. The name "Fairy Fay" was first used by Terrence Robinson in, Beadle, p. 207; Evans and Rumbelow, p. 202; Fido, p. 100, Vanderlinden, Wolf (2003–04). Visit this page now! 78–80. A surviving note from Major Henry Smith, Acting Commissioner of the City Police, indicates that the alibis of local butchers and slaughterers were investigated, with the result that they were eliminated from the inquiry.  The name "Jack" was already used to describe another fabled London attacker: "Spring-heeled Jack", who supposedly leapt over walls to strike at his victims and escape as quickly as he came. Haggard, Robert F. (1993), "Jack the Ripper As the Threat of Outcast London", Evans and Rumbelow, pp. The victim's abdomen was also extensively mutilated, although her genitals had not been wounded. A Fourth Victim of the Maniac", "Recent Scholarship on Jack the Ripper and the Victorian Media", "Jack the Ripper Museum Architect Says He Was 'Duped' Over Change of Plans", The Phantom Raspberry Blower of Old London Town, The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, Volume III: Century, Sherlock Holmes: The Unauthorized Biography, The Prowler in the City at the Edge of the World, Portrait of a Killer: Jack the Ripper—Case Closed, Mystery in London: On the Trail of Jack the Ripper, Blood! Over 200 are preserved at the Public Record Office (Evans and Skinner. 60–61; Rumbelow, pp. , Historically, the belief these five canonical murders were committed by the same perpetrator is derived from contemporary documents which link them together to the exclusion of others.  A 53-year-old stoker, James Thomas Sadler, had earlier been seen drinking with Coles, and the two are known to have argued approximately three hours before her death.  Some contemporary figures, including Queen Victoria, thought the pattern of the murders indicated that the culprit was a butcher or cattle drover on one of the cattle boats that plied between London and mainland Europe. Worksheets that listen.  Everyone alive at the time is now long dead, and modern authors are free to accuse anyone "without any need for any supporting historical evidence".  By the 1960s, the Ripper had become "the symbol of a predatory aristocracy", and was more often portrayed in a top hat dressed as a gentleman. Home Jack the Ripper: at the crossing between fact and fantasy. Visit this page now! The main victims thought to be killed by the Ripper were five prostitutes: .  Nichols was not missing any organs; Chapman's uterus and sections of her bladder and vagina were taken; Eddowes had her uterus and left kidney removed and her face mutilated; and Kelly's body was extensively eviscerated, with her face "gashed in all directions" and the tissue of her neck being severed to the bone, although the heart was the sole body organ missing from this crime scene. , One week later, on Saturday 8 September 1888, the body of Annie Chapman was discovered at approximately 6 a.m. near the steps to the doorway of the back yard of 29 Hanbury Street, Spitalfields.  One of the examining pathologists, Thomas Bond, believed this to be a Ripper murder, though his colleague George Bagster Phillips, who had examined the bodies of three previous victims, disagreed. myth» but i know that you would like how and why. American crime author Patricia Cornwell claimed that Walter Sickert, a well-known eccentric and painter, matched mitochondrial DNA profiles from letters written by Jack the Ripper. He worked as a hairdresser in Whitechapel in the East End of London, where a series of murders ascribed to an unidentified figure nicknamed "Jack the Ripper" were committed in 1888. Evans and Rumbelow, pp. Her throat had been deeply cut but her body was not mutilated, leading some to believe Thompson had disturbed her assailant. , The canonical five Ripper victims are Mary Ann Nichols, Annie Chapman, Elizabeth Stride, Catherine Eddowes, and Mary Jane Kelly.  Tabram had not been raped.  She appeared to have been killed approximately one day prior to the discovery of her torso. Grammar, reading, vocabulary, speaking.  Millwood was later postulated to be the Ripper's first victim, although this attack cannot be definitively linked to the perpetrator. Rumours that the murders were connected intensified in September and October 1888, and numerous letters were received by media outlets and Scotland Yard from individuals purporting to be the murderer. before two eyewitnesses heard Farmer scream, her wound was possibly self-inflicted.  The modus operandi of the Torso killer differed from that of the Ripper, and police at the time discounted any connection between the two. In the case of "Fairy Fay", it is unclear whether this attack was real or fabricated as a part of Ripper lore. A multi-level English curriculum featuring cartoon animated videos, engaging games, interactive tests and a progress tracker. , The extensively mutilated and disembowelled body of Mary Jane Kelly was discovered lying on the bed in the single room where she lived at 13 Miller's Court, off Dorset Street, Spitalfields, at 10:45 a.m. on Friday 9 November 1888. From 1891, Kosminski was institutionalised after he threatened a woman with a knife. Modern police work follows the same pattern. Although there were various suspects, no one was ever arrested for the crimes, and the case is one of the most famous unsolved mysteries of English crime. Evans, Stewart P. (April 2003). ", "7 People Suspected of Being Jack the Ripper", "Sir William Withey Gull, 1st Baronet: English Physician", "Horror Upon Horror.  The cattle boats were examined but the dates of the murders did not coincide with a single boat's movements and the transfer of a crewman between boats was also ruled out. Kosminski was a Polish Jew who emigrated from Congress Poland to England in the 1880s.  Chapman's autopsy also revealed that her uterus and sections of her bladder and vagina had been removed.  He wrote: All five murders no doubt were committed by the same hand. 135, Corporation of London Records, quoted in Evans and Skinner, pp. His legs had been severed, his abdomen opened, his intestines partly drawn out, and his heart and one ear removed. She had been bludgeoned about the face and received a cut to her ear.  She was later discharged, but died from apparently natural causes on 31 March. All with comprehensive Teacher Notes included. They patrolled the streets looking for suspicious characters, partly because of dissatisfaction with the failure of police to apprehend the perpetrator, and also because some members were concerned that the murders were affecting businesses in the area. Cook, pp. Live Worksheets
In the 1920s and 1930s, he was depicted in film dressed in everyday clothes as a man with a hidden secret, preying on his unsuspecting victims; atmosphere and evil were suggested through lighting effects and shadowplay.  Eleven separate murders, stretching from 3 April 1888 to 13 February 1891, were included in a London Metropolitan Police Service investigation and were known collectively in the police docket as the "Whitechapel murders". Jack the Ripper was just as violent, using a knife to slash and stab his way through London’s Whitechapel for three months, killing a total of five women. Warning: This game has gory scenes. Cook, pp.  The letter came with a small box in which Lusk discovered half of a human kidney, preserved in "spirits of wine" (ethanol). 81–125, Medical report in Coroner's Inquests, no. 245–246; Evans and Skinner, Evans and Rumbelow, pp.  "Fairy Fay" seems to have been created through a confused press report of the murder of Emma Elizabeth Smith, who had a stick or other blunt object shoved into her vagina. Some experts claim that the actual number is higher than the generally accepted Canonical Five. Five victims—Mary Ann Nichols, Annie Chapman, Elizabeth Stride, Catherine Eddowes, and Mary Jane Kelly—are known as the "canonical five" and their murders between 31 August and 9 November 1888 are often considered the most likely to be linked.  Several witnesses later informed police they had seen Stride in the company of a man in or close to Berner Street on the evening of 29 September and in the early hours of 30 September, but each gave differing descriptions: some said that her companion was fair, others dark; some said that he was shabbily dressed, others well-dressed. 235–8, quoted in Begg, Marriott, John, "The Imaginative Geography of the Whitechapel murders", in Werner, p. 54, Cook, pp. , The body of Mary Ann Nichols was discovered at about 3:40 a.m. on Friday 31 August 1888 in Buck's Row (now Durward Street), Whitechapel. Fannys hooves. "A Guide to the Literature of Jack the Ripper". 139–141; Vaughan, Laura, "Mapping the East End Labyrinth", in Werner, pp. Although the Ripper’s crimes were heinous and grotesque, they managed to captivate the entire country, serving as titilating entertainment for the repressed Victorian culture. Stride's body was discovered at approximately 1 a.m. in Dutfield's Yard, off Berner Street (now Henriques Street) in Whitechapel. Teaching Kids who Canñññt Read? 7. Sherlock Holmes versus Jack the Ripper. " This graffito became known as the Goulston Street graffito. , On 29 December 1888, the body of a seven-year-old boy named John Gill was found in a stable block in Manningham, Bradford. Video Worksheet : An overview of the Jack the Ripper murders and the investigation This worksheet accompanies the first 40 minutes of the video available from here . " On 7 October 1888, George R. Sims in the Sunday newspaper Referee implied scathingly that the letter was written by a journalist "to hurl the circulation of a newspaper sky high". Quoted in Cook, pp. At the end of October, Robert Anderson asked police surgeon Thomas Bond to give his opinion on the extent of the murderer's surgical skill and knowledge.  Bruising about the victim's back, hip, and arm indicated the decedent had been extensively beaten shortly before her death.  In the two decades after the murders, the worst of the slums were cleared and demolished, but the streets and some buildings survive and the legend of the Ripper is still promoted by various guided tours of the murder sites and other locations pertaining to the case. The left kidney and the major part of the uterus had been removed, and her face had been disfigured, with her nose severed, her cheek slashed, and cuts measuring a quarter of an inch and a half an inch respectively vertically incised through each of her eyelids. Whitechapel was close to the London Docks, and usually such boats docked on Thursday or Friday and departed on Saturday or Sunday. 205–207 and Fido, pp. 51–55; Marriott, Trevor, p. 13, Eddleston, p. 21; Evans and Rumbelow, pp.  Suspects proposed years after the murders include virtually anyone remotely connected to the case by contemporary documents, as well as many famous names who were never considered in the police investigation, including a member of the British royal family, an artist, and a physician. Nichols had last been seen alive approximately one hour before the discovery of her body by a Mrs Emily Holland, with whom she had previously shared a bed at a common lodging-house in Thrawl Street, Spitalfields, walking in the direction of Whitechapel Road. High Quality ESL Lesson Plans - Free Samples - $26 Membership
The Establishment as a whole became the villain, with the Ripper acting as a manifestation of upper-class exploitation. 31–63. Infamous murderer Jack the Ripper killed at least five London female prostitutes in 1888. , The nature of the Ripper murders and the impoverished lifestyle of the victims drew attention to the poor living conditions in the East End and galvanised public opinion against the overcrowded, insanitary slums. ESL Printables,
, A section of Eddowes's bloodied apron was found at the entrance to a tenement in Goulston Street, Whitechapel, at 2:55 a.m. A chalk inscription upon the wall directly above this piece of apron read: "The Juwes are The men That Will not be Blamed for nothing. The text is unedited, and any errors or omissions rest with the author. , Smith was robbed and sexually assaulted in Osborn Street, Whitechapel, at approximately 1:30 a.m. on 3 April 1888. to which Chapman had replied, "Yes. Jack the Ripper was an unidentified serial killer active in the largely impoverished areas in and around the Whitechapel district of London in 1888. To understand how, you have to know that Jack the Ripper or «the Whitechapel murderer» has killed 5 prostitues in 1888 or in other word he killed in a period when there was a bad political situation but beacause of he was a «new thing» for the habitant of London, they never known something like a serial killer before. It provides a good overview of the East End, the victims and the problems faced by the police. Macnaghten's notes quoted by Cook, p. 151; Evans and Skinner.  The term "ripperology" was coined to describe the study and analysis of the Ripper cases, and the murders have inspired numerous works of fiction. He was briefly thought to be the Ripper, but was later discharged from court for lack of evidence on 3 March 1891. thread, I thought I'd give it a shot to reconstruct, at least, the sequence of comings and goings in and around  A triangular incision—the apex of which pointed towards Eddowes's eye—had also been carved upon each of her cheeks, and a section of the auricle and lobe of her right ear was later recovered from her clothing.  Imaginative descriptions of "Leather Apron" appeared in the press, but rival journalists dismissed these as "a mythical outgrowth of the reporter's fancy".  The Whitechapel murders file details another four murders that occurred after the canonical five: those of Rose Mylett, Alice McKenzie, the Pinchin Street torso, and Frances Coles. 208–209; Rumbelow, p. 131. 79–80; Fido, pp. Report by Inspector Joseph Helson, CID 'J' Division, in the Metropolitan Police archive, MEPO 3/140 ff. The murders were never solved, and the legends surrounding these crimes became a combination of historical research, folklore, and pseudohistory. Gameplay: This game can be played in first or third person mode.The main menu has new game, resume, load, save, controls, credits, options, exit game and credits. Evans and Rumbelow, pp. Advertise
 It has been argued that the postcard was posted before the murders were publicised, making it unlikely that a crank would hold such knowledge of the crime.  A report from Inspector Swanson to the Home Office confirms that 76 butchers and slaughterers were visited, and that the inquiry encompassed all their employees for the previous six months.  The opinion offered by Bond on the character of the "Whitechapel murderer" is the earliest surviving offender profile. The name "Jack the Ripper" originated in a letter written by an individual claiming to be the murderer that was disseminated in the media. , The large number of attacks against women in the East End during this time adds uncertainty to how many victims were murdered by the same individual. Attacks ascribed to Jack the Ripper typically involved female prostitutes who lived and worked in the slums of the East End of London whose throats were cut prior to abdominal mutilations.  The dismembered sections of the body are believed to have been transported to the railway arch, hidden under an old chemise. In the first four the throats appear to have been cut from left to right, in the last case owing to the extensive mutilation it is impossible to say in what direction the fatal cut was made, but arterial blood was found on the wall in splashes close to where the woman's head must have been lying.All the circumstances surrounding the murders lead me to form the opinion that the women must have been lying down when murdered and in every case the throat was first cut.